Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Posted at: Sep 15, 2018, 12:31 AM; last updated: Sep 15, 2018, 12:31 AM (IST)HEALTH CAPSULES

Elevated BP linked to aortic valve disease

People with a long-term problem of blood pressure (BP) have an increased risk of aortic valve disease, problems with the valve that controls how blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart out into the main artery, the aorta. A recent study found every additional 20 mmHg above a systolic BP of 115 mmHg was associated with a 41 per cent higher risk of aortic stenosis (AS) and a 38 per cent higher risk of aortic regurgitation (AR) later in life. Compared to people who had a systolic BP of 120 mmHg or lower, those with a systolic BP of 161 mmHg or higher had more than twice the risk of being diagnosed with AS and were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with AR during follow-up. The findings suggest that controlling BP, even at levels below the threshold currently defined for hypertension of 140/90 mmHg, may be a way to prevent these conditions. In AS, the valve that opens and closes when blood is pumped out of the left ventricle becomes narrowed and stiff due to calcium building up. When this happens, the valve fails to work effectively, making it harder for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. AR occurs when the valve doesn't close properly, allowing some blood to leak back into the left ventricle. The findings appeared in the Journal of European Heart

Obesity puts you at asthma risk

Obesity can alter airway muscle function, thereby increasing your risk of developing asthma. Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma, in part because of the systemic and localised inflammation of the airways that occur in people with a high body mass index. People with obesity "also manifest a higher risk of severe asthma, decreased disease control and decreased response to corticosteroids therapy," explained scientists who conducted the research. Previous studies suggest that some people with obesity may have a type of asthma that is not caused by airway inflammation, but by hyperresponsiveness--a higher-than-normal response to an allergen--in the airway smooth muscle. Hyperresponsiveness causes the airways to narrow, obstructing ease of breathing, and can occur when the muscles contract or begin to spasm. The study appears in the American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 

Sleep apnea may lead to lung cancer at young age  

Sleep apnea, a sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts, can lead to lung cancer growth in young individuals. A study, conducted with animal models found, “the younger, the more vulnerable to cancer's aggressiveness.” The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects about the 10 per cent of the adults worldwide. The new study researched the potential effects of obstructive sleep apnea in cancer. This new study, conducted on young mice -equivalent ages to those in teenagers- and old mice -corresponding to people aged over 65, shows how the lack of oxygen during sleep (hypoxia) speeds up tumour growth in the youngest ones only. The findings appeared in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. — Agencies


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